Employer-Based Trip Reduction Programs
Employer-based trip reduction programs are a type of transportation demand management that seeks to reduce vehicle travel to work, such as Commuter Benefit programs. A number of different strategies can be included as part of these programs, including alternative mode services (e.g. guaranteed ride home), financial incentives (e.g., parking cash out), and active transportation information and marketing. This also includes workplace showers and safe storage for bicycles.
Often a broad set of incentives are included in employer-based trip reduction programs, which tends to increase their effectiveness. The availability of other transportation options, such as transit or bicycle infrastructure, will also affect the effectiveness of these programs.
Employer-based trip reduction programs reduce vehicle miles traveled (VMT) and greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) (Boarnet et al., 2014; Salon et al., 2012, paywall).
Possible co-benefits include reduced obesity rates, improved physical fitness, improved health outcomes, reduced air pollution, reduced parking demand, and reduced traffic congestion. Trip reduction programs with multiple components are likely to increase waking, bicycling, and transit use (County Health Rankings & Roadmaps, 2019). Programs involving incentives for public transportation, such as free or discounted travel passes, are likely to increase the use of public transit and increase physical activity (County Health Rankings & Roadmaps, 2017). Experts agree that carpool and rideshare programs can reduce traffic congestion, reduce emissions, and reduce vehicle miles traveled (VMT) (County Health Rankings & Roadmaps, 2017).
Equity and Inclusion
Free or reduced transit passes may be desirable for low-income individuals. However, low-income individuals may not be able to take advantage of transit passes given the spatial distribution of employment and the location of their residences (LaChappelle, 2018, paywall).
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